Top articles / recent research & helpful thoughts for ApoE4s

Insights and discussion from the cutting edge with reference to journal articles and other research papers.
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Re: Top articles / recent research

Post by TheresaB »

4th Quarter 2022

In addition to this website, we ( have a Facebook page where current research/articles of interest are posted. Here are the top 10 Facebook papers/articles that generated the most interest during the fourth quarter (Oct – Dec) of 2022.

1 Posted Oct 15, 2022
4 Benefits Of Regular Sauna Use, From Brain Health To Longevity ... HSyvDjOo3k
Both neurologist Dale Bredesen, M.D., author of "The End of Alzheimer's", and energy specialist Ari Whitten, author of "Eat for Energy", sing the praises of the mighty sauna.

2. Posted Nov 23, 2022
Time-restricted eating may benefit Alzheimer's ... dQAe01UwPw
In a recent study published in the Experimental Gerontology journal, researchers in the United States assessed the impact of time-restricted eating (TRE) on Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline, and sleep.

3. Posted Dec 17, 2022
Factors Linked to Optimal Aging Uncovered ... 3yOWQD_Qwk
ApoE4s have more to be concerned with than just Alzheimer’s. While our gene seems to serve us well when young, it doesn't do us any favors when we age. But there are things we can do to help ourselves age well. What are the keys to “successful” or optimal aging? A new study followed more than 7000 middle aged and older Canadians for approximately three years to identify the factors linked to well-being as we age.

4. Posted Oct 24, 2022
Omega-3 fatty acids ... p7jhvj2dNk
We’ve emphasized the importance of Omega-3 intake before, now here’s more to add to the pile. ApoE4s tend to be longevity challenged and predisposed to cardiovascular disease, but Omega-3s can help with that:
• Having low omega-3 levels ranks among the top six causes of preventable death – right up there with smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity.
• Having high omega-3 levels may reduce a person's risk of cardiovascular disease by a whopping 25 percent.
• Taking omega-3s is associated with an additional five years of lifespan, on par with not smoking.

5. Posted Dec 20, 2022
Walnuts the New Brain Food for Stress ... noWA3GbSSU
Walnut consumption was associated with increased improvements in self-reported mental health and stress. It was also linked to improved sleep quality and metabolic biomarkers. Walnuts contain omega-3 fatty acids, melatonin, and other vitamins and nutrients associated with mental and gut health.

6. Posted: Oct 19, 2022
Study Shows What Causes our Bodies to Age Faster ... 8bb5c355cb
The women who experienced healthy longevity, compared to the ones who lived to 90 but didn’t have healthy longevity or just didn’t make it to 90, were more likely to have these characteristics:
• They were white
• Had no major chronic health conditions
• Graduated from college
• Had no history of smoking
• Walked 2 to 3 times a week or 4 to 6 times a week
• Had a normal BMI or were overweight
• Had more than 1 but fewer than 7 alcoholic drinks a week
• Had a higher average physical functioning score

7. Posted Dec 14, 2022
Subcutaneous fat emerges as a protector of females' brains ... 7GzQDIQxlA
Females' propensity to deposit more fat in places like their hips, buttocks and the backs of their arms, so-called subcutaneous fat, is protective against brain inflammation, which can result in problems like dementia and stroke, at least until menopause, scientists report.

8. Posted Dec 31, 2022
New Biomarker Test Can Detect Alzheimer’s Neurodegeneration in Blood ... Uxf9g04R5k
A group of neuroscientists led by a University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researcher developed a test to detect a novel marker of Alzheimer’s disease neurodegeneration in a blood sample.
A study on their results was recently published in “Brain”.

9. Posted Nov 26, 2022
A hibiscus compound may help remove toxic plaque build-up in Alzheimer's ... PTy23DBrpM
• Accumulation of toxic aggregates of the beta-amyloid proteins in certain brain regions is often linked to the decline in cognitive function characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease.
• Studies suggest that impaired clearance or removal of beta-amyloid may contribute to the accumulation of beta-amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease.
• A recent study shows that gossypetin, a flavonoid present in the flower of a hibiscus species, facilitated the clearance of beta-amyloid in the brain of an Alzheimer’s mouse model.
• Treatment with gossypetin also attenuated deficits in memory and learning in the mouse model, highlighting the therapeutic potential of this compound in Alzheimer’s disease.

10. Posted: Nov 29, 2022
4 Surprising Things That Can Impact Dementia, From A Psychiatrist ... DzJZFq13bI
With cognitive decline, it's important to focus on early intervention and doing what you can to prevent the onset—but that's not to say you can't do anything about it once symptoms arise. In the podcast contained in this article, functional medicine psychiatrist Kat Toups, M.D shares how she healed her own serious autoimmune disease and cognitive impairment. "Gradually, there came a day that my brain came back online," she recounts. "It was really exciting when I realized I could hold the seven digits of a phone number in my head and dial the number again.”
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Re: Top articles / recent research

Post by circular »

TheresaB wrote: Sat Jan 07, 2023 7:02 am 7. Posted Dec 14, 2022
Subcutaneous fat emerges as a protector of females' brains ... 7GzQDIQxlA
Females' propensity to deposit more fat in places like their hips, buttocks and the backs of their arms, so-called subcutaneous fat, is protective against brain inflammation, which can result in problems like dementia and stroke, at least until menopause, scientists report.
This reminds me of a recent episode of NOVA on PBS: The Truth About Fat. It can be viewed online. One takeaway … Sumo wrestlers don't have the chronic diseases that are associated with obesity despite their weight. The reason is their fat is subcutaneous, and their high level of exercise helps keeps the fat stores from becoming visceral.
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Re: Top articles / recent research

Post by TheresaB »

1st Quarter 2023

In addition to this website, we ( have a Facebook page where current research/articles of interest are posted. Here are the top Facebook papers/articles that generated the most interest during the first quarter (Jan – Mar) of 2023.

1. Posted Mar 11, 2023
MIND and Mediterranean Diets Associated With Fewer Alzheimer’s Plaques and Tangles ... cBd3_62KQA
People who eat diets rich in green leafy vegetables, as well as other vegetables, fruits, whole grains, olive oil, beans, nuts and fish, may have fewer amyloid plaques and tau tangles in their brain—signs of Alzheimer’s disease—than people who do not consume such diets, according to a study published in the March 8, 2023, online issue of Neurology.

2. Posted Feb 11, 2023
Diet Not Genes Is Driving Dementia According To The British Medical Journal ... TeiCqkrjXE
A hugely significant study in the British Medical Journal into age-related cognitive decline and dementia has stated that changing your diet and lifestyle from bad to good cuts your future risk of developing dementia by a massive nine times
The study also shows, significantly, that whether or not you inherit the ApoE4 ‘Alzheimer’s gene’ that one in five people carry, it makes no difference to the positive reduction in risk achievable by simple diet and lifestyle changes.

3. Posted Jan 6, 2023
Time-restricted eating reshapes gene expression throughout the body ... 2O4ErDBFH4
“Numerous studies have shown health benefits of time-restricted eating including increase in life span in laboratory studies, making practices like intermittent fasting a hot topic in the wellness industry. However, exactly how it affects the body on the molecular level, and how those changes interact across multiple organ systems, has not been well understood. Now, Salk scientists show in mice how time-restricted eating influences gene expression across more than 22 regions of the body and brain. Gene expression is the process through which genes are activated and respond to their environment by creating proteins.”

4. Posted 27-Feb-23
Removal of Neuronal APOE4 Alleviates Alzheimer’s in Mice ... zRc1WLQuHk
The researchers created an ingenious mouse model of Alzheimer’s using mice that produced both human tau protein and either human ApoE3 or ApoE4. On top of that, the researchers developed a mechanism for switching off the APOE gene specifically in neurons.
As expected, the APOE4 mice exhibited much more severe AD symptoms than the APOE3 mice. If ApoE4 production in neurons was switched off, overall levels of this protein fell by about 30%, which matches the share of ApoE known to be produced in neurons. However, the reduction in tau pathology was much more substantial: 81%.

5. Posted January 23, 2022
Mediterranean diet associated with a lower risk of mortality in older adults ... yYEcbVuKto
A greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet which had been assessed through an index made with biomarkers during a 20-year scientific monitoring is associated with a lower mortality in adults over 65. This is one of the main conclusions of a study led by Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, head of the Research Group on Biomarkers and Nutritional & Food Metabolomics of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences of the University of Barcelona (UB) and the CIBER on Fragility and Healthy Ageing (CIBERFES), also formed by the Food Innovation Network of Catalonia (XIA).

6. Feb 13, 2023
Mushrooms Magnify Memory by Boosting Nerve Growth ... FbJoRIaU5k
Active compounds in the edible Lion’s Mane mushroom can help promote neurogenesis and enhance memory, a new study reports. Preclinical trials report the compound had a significant impact on neural growth and improved memory formation. Researchers say the compound could have clinical applications in treating and preventing neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

7. Posted Mar 13, 2023
Reimagining Alzheimer’s (Part 8): APOE4 Removal Reduces Symptoms Of Alzheimer’s Disease ... 2cNac0xSw8
If you are a person who has inherited the APOE4 gene, new research in mice suggests that knocking out the APOE4 gene dramatically reduces the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. The study, published in Nature Aging, shows that when the APOE4 gene is knocked out in mice, typical Alzheimer’s disease symptoms are significantly reduced.

8. Feb 25, 2023
SCOTT DREYER: Excerpt: “How to Give Yourself Alzheimer’s” by Dale Bredesen M.D. ... JOjwHIvDh0
Nobody wants to give themselves Alzheimer’s, but many people are unwittingly contributing to this fate. “How to give yourself Alzheimer’s” reads a lot like a day in the life of many people. Doing the opposite of this “tutorial” aids a brain-healthy lifestyle.

9. Posted Feb 26, 2023
Nicotinamide Riboside Supplement Linked to Reduced Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s in the Brain ... OZMuACXL0M
Nicotinamide riboside (NR), a naturally occurring dietary supplement can enter the brain and alter the metabolism of biological pathways associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

10. Posted Mar 25, 2023
A Higher Dose of Magnesium Each Day Keeps Dementia at Bay ... SAUD3YNbZE
Adding more magnesium-rich foods, such as spinach and nuts, to your daily diet can help reduce age-related brain shrinkage and stave off symptoms of dementia, a new study reports. The study of more than 6,000 cognitively healthy participants in the United Kingdom aged 40 to 73 found people who consume more than 550 milligrams of magnesium each day have a brain age that is approximately one year younger by the time they reach 55 compared with someone with a normal magnesium intake of about 350 milligrams a day.

11. Posted Jan 21, 2023
CAA: Notes from the Frontlines ... oR_AgFe8hE
Are you an ApoE4 carrier and are unfamiliar with CAA (Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy)? Then take a few minutes to become acquainted with this condition since there is an association between ApoE4s and CAA. This article relays a first hand experience with a family member’s cerebral bleed and also has information on what CAA is and how to protect yourself.

12. Posted Mar 4, 2023
How to Generate New Neurons in the Brain ... qJAn313nZY
We generate neurons throughout our life, but as we get older we generate fewer and fewer. After discovering the importance of cell metabolism in neurogenesis, researchers were able to increase the number of neurons in the brains of adult and elderly mice.

13. Posted Mar 6, 2023
Is exercise more effective than medication for depression and anxiety? ... PTzAmqTfI8
Mental disorders are associated with accelerated aging and decreased lifespan. There’s a strong connection between mental, metabolic, and neurological disorders. But exercise can help.
• A large new analysis of meta-studies finds that exercise is more beneficial for conditions such as anxiety and depression than standard psychotherapy or medications.
• The new study found that essentially all forms of exercise produced significant mental health benefits.
• Shorter, high intensity exercise programs produced the greatest effect.
• Exercise provided the greatest mental health benefit to people with depression, or who had been diagnosed with HIV and kidney disease, pregnant and postpartum women, and otherwise healthy adults.
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Re: Top articles / recent research

Post by TheresaB »

2nd Quarter 2023

In addition to this website, we ( have a Facebook page where current research/articles of interest or just things of interest to ApoE4s are posted. Here are the Facebook posts that generated the most interest during the second quarter (April- June) of 2023 in order of popularity.

Posted May 1, 2023
No link to an article or paper, just a post with this graphic and comment:
23_05_01 Hyman SMASH FISH.jpg
Omega-3 consumption is particularly important for ApoE4s. The following text and photo was posted recently on the Mark Hyman, MD page:
“I always tell people that if you can fit the entire fish in your pan, then it’s probably a good choice.
I like these types of small fish, SMASH fish: Salmon (wild caught), Mackerel, Anchovies, Sardines, and Herring.
You should eat seafood at least three times a week. The best fish are sustainably sourced, chock-full of omega-3s, low in contaminants and omega-6s, and certified authentic.
Much like our preference for vegetables, the fish that Americans love the most tend to be the kind that are the least nutritious, like tilapia and farmed catfish -- pale, mild-tasting varieties that are lowest in omega 3s.
Stay away from farmed seafood or wild fish that contain a lot of toxins -- larger fish are higher on the oceanic food chain, and as a result they accumulate more mercury, PCBs, and other toxins.
That’s why I don’t really eat swordfish, Chilean sea bass, halibut, and tuna. The toxins these big fish accumulate outweigh the benefits from their omega-3s.
As important as omega-3s are to every cell in our bodies, we’re not going to eat salmon and sardines every day. Some of us won’t eat those dark, oily fish ever.
So, it’s important to supplement with a daily fish oil. Taking a supplement of 1-2 grams a day is wise as it protects your cardiovascular system and reduces inflammation.”

Posted April 26, 2023
No link to an article or paper, just a post with this graphic and comment:
23_04_26 gen foods cover-side.jpg
Yesterday we shared foods that Dr Dale Bredesen, internationally recognized expert on neurodegenerative disease, recommends for brain health. Today we’re sharing the foods that are recommended for brain optimization as taken from the book, “Genius Foods.” The author, Max Lugavere, put his career on hold after his mother was diagnosed with dementia. He dedicated his time to learn everything he could about brain health and performance., He consumed the most up-to-date scientific research, talked to dozens of leading scientists and clinicians around the world, and visited the country’s best neurology departments.

Posted April 1, 2023
New Form of Omega-3 Could Prevent Visual Decline With Alzheimer’s Disease
A newly developed version of the Omega-3 fatty acid DHA can cross the retina in the eye and ward off vision loss for those with Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and other disorders.

Posted May 11, 2023
The Breathing Technique That Could Reduce Your Risk Of Alzheimer's
This article addresses a study published in Nature Journal. In the study, participants did one simple thing: inhale for a count of five, exhale for a count of five for 20 minutes, twice a day, for four weeks. Though simple, these breathing techniques had profound impacts on the participant’s breathing. Their heart rates variability increased during each exercise period and the levels of amyloid-beta peptides in their bloodstream decreased by the time the four week period was over.

Posted April 10, 2023
Modified Mediterranean Ketogenic Diet May Benefit Adults at Risk for Alzheimer’s
According to a new study from scientists at Wake Forest University School of Medicine, consuming a modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet which consists of healthy fats and low carbs positively alters biological pathways associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Switching to a Mediterranean-keto diet could help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s, particularly for those most at risk of developing dementia.

Posted April 27, 2023
No link to article/paper, just a post with this graphic and comment:
23_04_27 Yassine lab dietary recommendations.png
Dr. Hussein Yassine is another of our favorite researchers because his research places an emphasis on how changes in lipid metabolism and nutrition affect the brain and risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). He’s specifically interested in how carrying the APOE4 allele and diabetes affect brain lipid metabolism and the response to the diet. He runs a lab at the University of Southern California where more can be found at Here’s his dietary recommendations.

Posted April 25, 2023
No link to article/paper, just a post with this graphic and comment:
23_04_25 Bredesen nutrients for optimal brain health.png
Per Dr Dale Bredesen, nutrients for optimal brain health, and where to find them.

April 5, 2023
Early Menopause, Later Start to Hormone Therapy May Increase Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease
Early onset menopause is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, but starting Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) at the time of menopause onset can help reduce the risk.

Posted April 8, 2023
[url- ... bR7Dyu75AU]Activating Adult-Born Neurons Through Deep Brain Stimulation Alleviates Alzheimer’s Symptoms[/url]
In a paper published April 6 in the journal Cell Stem Cell, researches found that deep brain stimulation of newborn hippocampal neurons restored both cognitive and non-cognitive function in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease.

Posted June 12, 2023
How to Read a Scientific Paper
Ever tried to read a scientific paper? It's not easy. But according to the author of this article, it’s a learned skill and like many skills, it is easier than it seems at first.

Posted June 29, 2023
No link to article/paper, just a post with this graphic and comment:
23_06_29 hierarchy of scientific evidence.png
We post many papers here, but just because a paper is a scientific study (or that we post it) doesn’t mean the findings are indisputable. The type of study needs to be taken into consideration and even at the top of the pyramid, a critical eye needs to be applied. Just some things to consider, add your own in the comments. -- Was the paper peer-reviewed? Is there a good demographic sample? Is the timeframe of study adequate (remember Alzheimer’s develops over decades). Are the results stated as a percentage, percentages can make something appear more significant. Look at the scale on a graph, it can be manipulated to make an impact look greater than it really is. Is there direct causation or is there only association. Who funded the study, some are funded by industries who have a vested interest in the outcome. The pressure to publish or perish is great, bias and even fraud have made it in some studies.

Published April 24, 2023
Stress Rapidly Increases Biological Age, but Recovery Turns Back the Clock
The number 1 risk factor for Alzheimer's isn't ApoE4, but aging. Stress can cause rapid and transient increases in biological age, which can be reversed upon recovery, according to a new study. Using DNA methylation clocks, researchers found that stress triggers short-term fluctuations in biological age in humans and mice. The findings challenge the idea that biological age has a unidirectional upward trajectory over the life course, and highlights the importance of reducing biological age to improve longevity.

Published May 9, 2023
Nourishing the Mind: Nutritional Interventions to Slow Alzheimer’s Disease
A new systematic review examined nutritional interventions for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The review identified 38 studies, including randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses.
The findings indicate that nutritional interventions such as the Mediterranean diet, ketogenic diet, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, and probiotics may slow the progression of AD and improve cognitive function and quality of life in mild-to-moderate cases.

Published May 14, 2023
Diet and Dementia: Study Uncovers Gut-Brain Link to Alzheimer’s
1. The study found a significant correlation between 10 specific types of gut bacteria and the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Six of these bacteria were identified as protective, while four were identified as risk factors for the disease.
2. Certain bacteria in the human gut can secrete acids and toxins that interact with the APOE gene, a major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, triggering a neuroinflammatory response that can affect brain health and immune functions.
3. The analysis revealed that an imbalance of gut bacteria can have negative effects on the immune system and is linked to various diseases, including depression, heart disease, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease. This highlights the importance of maintaining a healthy balance of gut microbiota for overall health and disease prevention.

Published April 28, 2023
What I Eat In A Day: Functional Medicine Doctor Terry Wahls Tells All
Dr Terry Wahls is another favorite of ours for her great inspiration in overcoming a neurodegenerative disease. A former conventional medicine doctor who was diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis, she was provided the best traditional medicine had to offer, but she continued to decline becoming tilt-wheelchair bound as she no longer had the strength to hold herself up. She took to her own deep research in trying to find the root causes of her affliction. She used diet and lifestyle changes to restore her health and emerge from that wheelchair. She’s now a functional doctor and has helped many with various health concerns through her “Wahls Protocol”.
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Re: Top articles / recent research

Post by TheresaB »

3rd quarter 2023

In addition to this website, we ( have a Facebook page where current research/articles or just things of interest to ApoE4s are posted. The posts are available to all whether or not a person has a facebook account.

Here are the Facebook papers/articles that generated the most interest during the third quarter (July – September ) of 2023 in order of popularity followed by the other most popular posts.

Posted Sep 24, 2023
Comprehensive Review of Nutraceuticals against Cognitive Decline Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease
Link to paper ... NT-IyUbGK8
“The current review summarizes the experimental evidence of the neuroprotective capacity of nutraceuticals against Alzheimer’s disease, describing their mechanisms of action and the in vitro and in vivo models applied to evaluate their neuroprotective potential.”

Posted Aug 8, 2023
The One Lifestyle Choice That Could Prevent Memory Loss
Link to article ... hKJmy2ZAUI
Newsweek spoke to a psychiatrist to learn what lifestyle choices can be made at a young age to prevent memory loss and memory-related problems in the years to come.

Posted Sep 26, 2023
Do any supplements, foods or lifestyle modifications help with brain function, like memory and cognition?
Link to article ... 79thMYgc4U
There is preliminary evidence that certain supplements modestly improve various aspects of memory or cognition. These benefits include boosting memory in people who do not have memory problems as well as improving memory or cognition in people with age-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s disease, and other forms of dementia.

Posted Aug 13, 2023
Icing Your Vagus Nerve: Does This TikTok Trend Really Work?
Link to article ... 2edKpxxmN8
Key takeaways:
• The vagus nerve oversees the regulation of involuntary functions, and it acts as a pathway for sensory and motor signals between the brain and vital organs.
• Ice water face plunge, ice packs to the face, neck, or chest, and cold water splash are all ways that have been said to promote the activity of the vagus nerve and stimulate a calmer mind.
• Icing the vagus nerve is said to redirect the mind and shift the attention away from what was causing worry, anxiety, and stress, promoting a clear and refreshed mindset.
• Several studies promote the use of cold water therapy to activate the parasympathetic nervous system and promote everything from less stress to better sleep.

Side note, for more info on the vagus nerve there’s the wiki:

Posted Sep 5, 2023
A Whiff of Genius: Simple Fragrance Method Boosts Cognitive Capacity by 226%
Link to article ... VGcf1SEGbU
Participants in a study by neuroscientists from the University of California, Irvine (UCI), reaped a 226% increase in cognitive capacity compared to the control group. The researchers say the finding transforms the long-known tie between smell and memory into an easy, non-invasive technique for strengthening memory and potentially deterring dementia.

Posted Sep 16, 2023
Alzheimer Agent ALZ-801 Improves Cognition, Reduces Relevant Biomarker Levels in 2-Year Analysis
Link to article ... R6PRavQXps
Patients on ALZ-801 demonstrated significant correlations between effects on volumetric MRI outcomes and 3 cognitive scales, suggesting cognitive gains are a result of preservation of brain structures from neurodegeneration and atrophy.
The phase 2 trial included 84 patients with early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) who carried either 1 or 2 copies of the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E gene (APOE3/4 heterozygotes and APOE4/4 homozygotes, respectively) and were treated over a 104-week period.

Posted Sep 7, 2023
Iron Buildup Triggers Cell Death in Alzheimer’s
Link to article ... UivCE37gKo
Key Facts:
1. For the first time, scientists found that ferroptosis—cell death caused by iron accumulation—destroys microglia cells in Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia.
2. Microglia, the brain’s immune cells, die while clearing iron-rich myelin, a previously unrecognized aspect of dementia.
3. The research suggests a pivotal role of microglial degeneration in the progression of cognitive decline in dementia, potentially leading to novel therapeutic interventions.

Posted Sep 10, 2023
The best fitness rings track your health without the bulk
Link to article ... FT8i55M4gk
If you love to track your steps, keep a careful eye on your health and sleep data, or plan workout regimens with the help of smart tech, you probably have a smartwatch or health wearable. But let's be honest: some smartwatches are far too clunky, and even the most nondescript smartwatch bands can clash with your outfit. They can get heavy and simply aren't stylish.
Smart rings, on the other hand, are a subtler, lightweight, and newer form of wellness tracking that could be up your alley. Thanks to built-in sensors that measure aspects like heart rate and blood oxygen levels, fitness rings continue to revolutionize the fitness landscape

Posted Aug 20, 2023
ApoE4 exacerbates the senescence of hippocampal neurons and spatial cognitive impairment by downregulating acetyl-CoA level
Link to paper ... 6o7BqVRHMs
Although aging and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele have been documented as two major risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), their interaction and potential underlying mechanisms remain unelucidated. Using humanized ApoE4- and ApoE3- target replacement mice, we found the accumulation of senescent neurons and the activation of mTOR and endosome-lysosome-autophagy (ELA) system in the hippocampus of aged ApoE4 mice…. These data suggest that ApoE4 exacerbates neuronal senescence due to a deficiency of acetyl-CoA, which can be ameliorated by GTA supplement. The findings provide novel insights into the potential therapeutic value of GTA supplement for the cognitive improvement in aged APOE4 carriers.

Posted Sep 14, 2023
Researchers Create a New Window on Leading Genetic Cause of Alzheimer’s
Link to article ... 4BefSm7MEc
The results were published August 30 in the journal Science Advances. The leader of the study is John Melchior, a protein biochemist at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Melchior is a leader in lipoprotein research—and a carrier of two copies of the APOE4 gene, adding a personal incentive to his work to understand the protein’s action in the nervous system. From Melchior, “What the heck is APOE4 doing? That’s the big question. Why does one form translate to less risk for dementia while a slightly different form confers significant risk? Our technology brings us one step toward more answers.”

Other popular posts

Posted Aug 7, 2023
001_23_08_07 Walk more Lipman quote.jpg

Posted Sep 19, 2023
002_23_09_19 Genes are not immutable 2.jpg

Posted Jul 4, 2023
The ApoE4 allele presents a higher risk for Alzheimer’s but this risk is not a deterministic, some 4s get Alzheimer’s and some don’t. ApoE4 is also associated with cardiovascular disease, heightened immune response, arterial disorders of the brain, shortened longevity, among others. Maybe, we’re just not good agers. Although it’s a mouthful, “Antagonistic Pleiotropy Gene” might be better nickname for ApoE4. Antagonistic pleiotropy is a theory of aging and pleiotropic genes are those whose functions are beneficial to an organism's fitness early in life, but detrimental to its fitness later.
003_23_07-04 Antagonistic Peliotropy Gene.jpg

Posted Aug 18, 2023
004_23_08_18 Hyman we need fat quote.jpg

Posted July 11, 2023
About 40% of the human brain is made up of gray matter and the other 60% is white matter. The gray matter, however, consumes about 94% of the total oxygen used by the brain. Gray matter is the areas where the actual "processing" is done whereas the white matter provides the communication between different gray matter areas and between the gray matter and the rest of the body.
005 23_07_11 gray-matter-vs-white-matter-322973-960x540.jpg

Sep 13, 2023
Mind your mitochondria.
006_23_09_13 Lipman quote on mitochondria.jpg
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Re: Top articles / recent research & helpful thoughts for ApoE4s

Post by TheresaB »

4th quarter 2023

In addition to this website, we ( have a Facebook page where current research/articles or just items of interest to ApoE4s are posted. The posts are available to all whether or not a person has a Facebook account.

Here are the Facebook papers/articles/posts that generated the most interest during the fourth quarter (October – December) of 2023 in order of popularity:

Posted: Oct 31, 2023
001_23_10_31 lipman cookware quote.jpg
What's your cookware?

Posted Nov 14, 2023
002_23_11_14 Keto-AutoImmune-Foods.jpg
ApoE4s are pro-inflammatory and studies have demonstrated that those with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment tend to have higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, cytokine receptors, and other inflammatory markers. This indicates that systemic inflammation plays a role in dementia pathogenesis. Diet can play a major role in keeping inflammation at bay. Thank you to Dr Jockers for this informative infographic, however one point of caution for ApoE4s is the recommendation for coconut foods as anti-inflammatory. They are also high in saturated fat and that raises lipids in ApoE4s moreso than our non-4 brethren. Similar caution when it comes to meat (not fish) consumption for ApoE4s, even if grass fed.

Posted Nov 20, 2023
003_23_11_20 Don't blindly accept.jpg
ApoE4s are a minority when it comes to general population and most studies/health recommendations are based on general population. Chances are your doctor is unfamiliar with the peculiarities that the ApoE4 allele confers, so take charge of your health.

Posted Oct 15, 2023
APOE4 Is A Genetic Risk Factor For Alzheimer's — Should You Find Out Your Status?
To test or not to test, things to consider.

Posted Dec 19, 2023
004_23_12_19 Success.jpg
Some say they don’t want to know their APOE status. But holding one or two ApoE4 alleles does not mean Alzheimer’s or the other health conditions associated with this genotype are assuredly in your future. If you understand the health weaknesses that being a 4 carrier brings and you make certain lifestyle adjustments accordingly, you greatly reduce your risks.

Posted Dec 29, 2023
005_23_12_29 Bredesen Inflammation quote.png
• Do you know what drives inflammation in you?
• Do you know your inflammation marker measurements?
• Do you know your food sensitivities?
• Do you have leaky gut?
• Did you know ApoE4s are pro-inflammatory?

Posted Oct 10, 2023
Statin Therapy Induces Gut Leakage and Neuromuscular Disjunction in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure
Full paper behind a paywall, but interesting enough to share the abstract since ApoE4s generally have high cholesterol numbers and doctors often seem to prescribe statins based solely on LDL without considering other markers or genetic status.
Patients taking statins experienced a significant increase in CAF22 (a marker of muscle wasting and sarcopenia), zonulin (a marker of intestinal barrier integrity), and C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation). Statin patients also demonstrated reduced hand-grip and gait speed compared to those not taking statins. "...statin therapy adversely affects the neuromuscular junction and intestinal barrier, which potentially induces systemic inflammation and physical disability in patients..."

Posted Oct 5, 2023
Gluten may cause brain inflammation, mouse study suggests
• In a groundbreaking study, researchers in New Zealand observed that wheat gluten can cause brain inflammation in mice.
• Their recent work showed that gluten added to a low- or high-fat diet triggered inflammation in the brain’s hypothalamic region, which regulates metabolism.
• Experts theorize that gluten may elicit an inflammatory immune response similar to what people with celiac experience.
• This research ties inflammation of nerve cells, to the onset of metabolic disease.
• Because mice and humans have similar systems, this study may carry important implications for human physiology.

Posted Oct 15, 2023
NEWSFLASH: Chronic Ketosis is Not Your Goal
One of the most common misconceptions from folks trying to follow the Bredesen Protocol, which many ApoE4s do for prevention as well as treatment for cognitive issues, is the mistaken aspiration to remain in a state of chronic ketosis. These participants erroneously think they’ll need to dramatically restrict their carbohydrates and consume gobs of dietary fat for the rest of their lives! It’s time to set the record straight: Chronic ketosis is not the goal of the program. And if you think all keto diets are unhealthy, read the other blog written by Julie Gregory under the “education” link from September 14th, “Not Your Daddy’s Keto”.

Posted Dec 17, 2023
Small HDL particles in brain appear protective against Alzheimer’s disease
Key takeaways:
• A gene (ApoE4) present in 25% of the population, which reduces neuroprotective small HDL production, is associated with increased Alzheimer’s disease risk.
• A drug in early development may be the key to lowering risk.

Posted Dec 3, 2023
006_23_12_03 Butyrate2.jpg
Butyrate is a beautiful thing. But what is butyrate? Butyrate is produced in your large intestine (colon) when “good” bacteria breaks down dietary fiber. What foods help generate butyrate? High fiber foods, resistant starches, fermented foods, and full fat dairy products (but watch the saturated fat if ApoE4, e.g. butter is 98% fat and over half the fat content is saturated fat). Graphic taken from
The paper, “Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?” by Megan W Bourassa et al, 8 Feb 2016, Figure 2.

Posted: Oct 21, 2023
Surgery-free brain stimulation offers new hope for dementia treatment
Scientists have completed a successful human trial using new high-frequency technology to stimulate neurons in the hippocampus, the area responsible for forming, organizing and retrieving memories. This non-invasive, painless treatment is now being trialed in older individuals with cognitive impairment, as a potential way to improve memory loss and function caused by Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Posted: Dec 4, 2023
LDL-C does not cause cardiovascular disease: a comprehensive review of the current literature
“For half a century, a high level of total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been considered to be the major cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and statin treatment has been widely promoted for cardiovascular prevention. However, there is an increasing understanding that the mechanisms are more complicated and that statin treatment, in particular when used as primary prevention, is of doubtful benefit.”

Posted: Nov 27, 2023
I talked to 263 of the world’s longest-living people—their 9 ‘non-negotiables’ for a long, happy life
The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's is aging. So how does one age well? According to the author of this article, “Based on my interviews with 263 people ages 100 or older, I’ve found that the world’s longevity champions conduct themselves based on what I call the “Power 9.” This article discusses those nine non-negotiables that help add years to your life.
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Re: Top articles / recent research & helpful thoughts for ApoE4s

Post by Jafa »

Wow Theresa,
Thank you so much for all your time and effort put into this. I was going to pickup some books at local library but there goes my Summer reading right there! (Downunder) 🤗
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Re: Top articles / recent research & helpful thoughts for ApoE4s

Post by TheresaB »

1st quarter 2024

In addition to this website, we ( have a Facebook page followed by thousands where current research/articles or just thoughts of interest to ApoE4s are posted. The posts are available to all whether or not a person has a Facebook account.

Here are the Facebook posts/papers that generated the most interest during the first quarter (January – March) of 2024 in order of popularity.

Reminder: You must be logged into this site to see the photos posted, but the links to the articles/papers/videos are accessible without logging in.

Date posted: Mar 18, 2024
Photo posted:
genes not destiny.jpg
Facebook comment: no comment

Date posted: Mar 21, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
Keto Diet Delays Alzheimer’s Memory Loss
Facebook comment:
A ketogenic diet significantly postpones the onset of Alzheimer’s-related memory decline in mice, a phase akin to human mild cognitive impairment preceding Alzheimer’s disease. Key findings highlight the molecule beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as instrumental in this protective effect, showing a nearly seven-fold increase in mice on the diet and improving synaptic function critical for memory.

Date posted: Jan 11, 2024
Photo posted:
24_01_11 Bredesen's 6 types of Alzheimer's.png
Facebook comment:
Yesterday we posted about research which identified 5 biological variants of Alzheimer’s disease through proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. This idea that Alzheimer’s disease is not a singular disease is not new. Although the variants are different, for a few years now, neurodegenerative disease researcher, Dr Dale Bredesen had already identified different types of Alzheimer’s.

Date posted: Jan 8, 2024
Photo posted:
24_01_08 Perlmutter on diet trumps genes.jpg
Facebook comment:
Dr David Perlmutter is a board-certified neurologist, Fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and five-time New York Times bestselling author. His expertise includes gluten issues, brain health & nutrition, and preventing neurodegenerative disorders.

Date Posted: Jan 5, 2024
Photo posted:
24_01_05 Bredesen on toxins.jpg
Facebook comment:
You help your brain by having:
*optimal levels of nutrients, hormones, and growth factors
*no pathogens or associated inflammation
*no insulin resistance
*no major exposure to toxins (pollution, pesticides, certain metals, mycotoxins [from certain molds], lipopolysaccharides (LPS), etc.)
From Dale Bredesen, MD, here are where toxins are commonly found:

Date Posted: Mar 8, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
Leading Neurologist: This Gene Raises Your Risk of Alzheimer’s—and Drug Side Effects
Facebook comment:
For ApoE4s with early-stage Alzheimer’s who are taking the new disease-modifying Alzheimer’s treatments that are monoclonal antibodies (MABs), the ApoE4 gene is linked to a higher risk of side effects from these drugs.

Date Posted: Feb 9, 2024
Photo posted:
24_02_09 Resistant Starch.jpg
Facebook comment:
Resistant starch, aka soluble fiber, can’t be broken down by digestive enzymes to be absorbed, so the unabsorbed molecules arrive in the intestines where the gut bacteria happily convert them to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). That’s a good thing! Examples of good resistant starches include: plantains, taro root, shirataki noodles, other nongrain “pastas,” parsnips, turnips, jicama, celery root, and Jerusalem artichokes (sunchokes), as well as UNRIPE fruits such as green bananas, mangoes, and papayas. Just watch the glycemic load, so consume judiciously.

Date Posted: Mar 25, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
Neurology professor Lisa Mosconi: ‘Menopause is a renovation project on the brain’
Facebook comment:
Menopause doesn’t just impact the body, it impacts the brain too. Lisa Mosconi studies that impact. Her new book, “The Menopause Brain”, examines the neurological symptoms of menopause, the new mental skills it can foster and the options for brain-inclusive menopause care. Mosconi, 46, is an associate professor of neurology and radiology at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York City, where she directs its Women’s Brain Initiative and Alzheimer’s Prevention Program, run jointly with NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital.

Date Posted: 26-Mar-24
Link to article/paper posted:
New research suggests intermittent fasting increases the risk of dying from heart disease. But the evidence is mixed
Facebook comment:
Intermittent fasting has gained popularity due to reported health benefits. This is particularly applicable for ApoE4s trying to increase ketone production, lower basal insulin levels, and aid our impaired autophagy. But last week headlines suggested the practice could increase a person’s risk of death from heart disease. So what to make of these findings?
First, the research was presented as a scientific poster at an American Heart Association conference last week, the full study hasn’t yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal. The conclusion was based on observational research, not a controlled trial, and we don’t know if the authors controlled for other factors that can influence health, such as body weight, medication use or diet quality. Read more in the linked article.

Date Posted: Jan 9, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
The 5 foods that an expert geneticist has avoided to rejuvenate
Facebook comment:
David Sinclair is known for his research on aging and epigenetics. Sinclair is also a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School and the co-director of its Paul F. Glenn Center for Biology of Aging Research. Since the number 1 risk for Alzheimer’s is aging, this article highlights his thoughts on meal frequency, foods to eat, supplements to take, foods to avoid, and exercise to benefit your biological age.

Date Posted: Jan 18, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
How A Neuroscientist Strengthens 5 Key Brain Regions Daily
Facebook comment:
From this article written by Daniel Amen, MD, “After 30-plus years as a psychiatrist who uses functional brain SPECT imaging in clinical practice, it is clear to me that the more you use your brain, the better it will perform. When most people think about mental exercise, they think about crossword puzzles and other word games. This is a great start, but it's only one piece of a total brain workout.
Based on the latest research as well as my own experiences in helping tens of thousands of patients optimize the brain and mental health, here are the best ways to exercise your brain on a daily basis.”

Date Posted: Feb 21, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
Study finds link between too much niacin intake and heart disease
Facebook comment:
ApoE4s have higher risk for cardiovascular disease and are proinflammatory, so this is important to note. A new study published in the journal Nature Medicine identified a strong link between 4PY, a breakdown product from excess niacin, and inflammation of blood vessels. Niacin, also known as Vitamin B-3, is very common in Western diets.

Date Posted: Jan 5, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
How are APOE4, changes in body weight, and longevity related? Insights from a causal mediation analysis
Facebook comment:
Click on the “download PDF link” for full paper.
“The ε4 allele of the APOE gene (APOE4) is known for its negative association with human longevity, however, the mechanism is unclear. ... This finding is in line with the idea that detrimental effect of APOE4 on longevity is in part related to accelerated physical aging of ε4 carriers.”

Date Posted: Feb 25, 2024
Link to video posted:
Why Enhancing Metabolic Health Could be the Key to Preventing Alzheimer's Disease
Facebook comment:
Information rich, but easy to understand video where Dr. David Perlmutter, a neurologist, provides an in-depth exploration of a crucial but contentious topic in Alzheimer's research and treatment. For decades, the pharmaceutical industry has heavily invested in targeting beta-amyloid protein, a “hallmark" of Alzheimer's disease, as the primary approach to treatment. However, critics argue that focusing solely on beta-amyloid reduction is not only flawed but also poses potential risks, and has shown limited effectiveness in combating the actual progression of Alzheimer's. In contrast, a growing body of scientific research advocates for a paradigm shift towards preventing the disease by improving brain metabolism. This video reveals why enhancing metabolic health could be the key to truly combating and even preventing Alzheimer's, offering new hope and strategies for those affected or even at risk for this devastating disease.

Date Posted: Mar 20, 2024
Link to article/paper posted:
Beyond Energy: Mitochondria's Role in Diet and Health
Facebook comment:
Mitochondria are involved in processes such as nutrient metabolism and utilization, cellular signaling, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense. However, their best-known function is the production of energy for the cell. Discussed in this article:
• Understanding mitochondria
• Mitochondria and nutrition: a deeper connection
• Mitochondrial dysfunction and health implications
• The role of mitochondria in aging and longevity
• Dietary strategies to support mitochondrial health
• Future directions: mitochondria in medical research
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Re: Top articles / recent research & helpful thoughts for ApoE4s

Post by Julie G »

What a wealth of information!!! Theresa, you are amazing.
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